The purpose of the parenthetical citation is to lead the reader to an exact item in the bibliography, so the first entry in the bibliography (usually author’s last name, sometimes title if no author is listed) is what is included in the parenthetical citation. Additionally, the exact point (page number) is listed.
Plagiarism is using the words, thoughts, or ideas of someone else without giving credit. Plagiarism can take many forms, and it can be intentional or accidental.
"Along with using someone’s direct words without quotation marks and attribution, plagiarism includes using someone’s thoughts or ideas and representing them as one’s own. For example, if you were to change the wording of a passage, but not credit the source, you are plagiarizing as much as if you used the original words. This presents something of a conundrum: students are required to use the research and writing of others, but such use is limited. In most research assignments, students are encouraged – or even required – to use the research of others, but proper credit must be given.
To ensure that you will give credit appropriately, begin by keeping your research materials organized. There are many note-taking systems available to assist you, but it is essential that you keep track of which ideas came from which sources. After finding good information from a reputable source, you must then integrate that information into your paper. There are several methods of doing this: quotation, paraphrase, and summary." (Talman)
Click here to automatically cite an Encyclopedia.
How to Cite an Encyclopedia in Print in APA Format
Last, F. M., & Last, F. M. (Year Published). Article title. In Encyclopedia Name. (Vol.#, pp. Page(s)). City, State: Publisher.
McGhee, K., & McKay, G. (2007). Insects. In Encyclopedia of Animals. (pp. 170-171). Washington, DC: National Geographic Society.
Bunson, M. R. (2012). Historical overview. In Encyclopedia on Ancient Egypt. (3rd ed., pp. Xii-Xv). New York, NY: Infobase Publishing.
How to Cite an Encyclopedia Online in APA Format
Last, F. M., & Last, F. M. (Year Published) Article title. In Encyclopedia Name. Retrieved from URL.
McGhee, K., & McKay, G. (2007). Insects. In Encyclopedia of Animals. Retrieved from http://books.google.com.
Bunson, M. R. (2012). Historical Overview. In Encyclopedia on Ancient Egypt. (3rd ed., pp. Xii-Xv). Retrieved from http://www.infobasepublishing.com/.
How to Cite an Encyclopedia on a Database in APA Format
Last, F. M. (Year Published). Article title. In F. M. Last (Ed.), Encyclopedia Name. (Vol. Volume, pp. Page(s)). City, State: Publisher. Retrieved Month Date, Year, from URL
Holmes, H. (2003). Advertising of food. In S. H. Katz (Ed.), "Advertising of Food" Encyclopedia of Food and Culture. Vol. 1, pp. 16-20). New York, NY: Scribner’s. Retrieved July 2, 2010, from http://www.gale.cengage.com
Bunson, M. R. (2012). Historical Overview. In Encyclopedia on Ancient Egypt. (3rd ed., pp. Xii-Xv). New York, NY: Infobase Publishing. Retrieved January 3, 2013, from http://www.infobasepublishing.com
For well-known reference works, it is not necessary to include full publication information.
View our visual citation guide on how to cite an Encyclopedia in APA format.