Sardinia Pilchardus Classification Essay

2.1. Yields and Chemical Constituents of Essential Oils

The results showed that the average yield (volume of the oil/total weight of peel) in EOs of bergamot, lemon and orange are in the order of 0.60%, 0.70% and 0.58%, respectively. The results obtained in this work (Table 1) are similar to the reuslts of others. Indeed, Jeannot et al. [15] reported yields ranging from 0.25% to 0.57% for bergamot EO. However, Fisher et al. [16] and Eleni et al. [17] reported that yields in citrus EOs differ depending on the species and reported yields of 1% to 3%. This difference could be explained according to Kelen and Tepe [18] by the choice of the harvest period because it is critical in terms of yield and quality of EO. Sarrou et al. [19] reported yields in bergamot EO of 0.12%, 1.67%, 0.27% and 0.45%, depending on the source hydrodistilled flowers, peel, and young and old leaves. Climate, geography, genetics of the plant, the organ of the plant used, the degree of freshness, the drying period, the extraction method used, etc. are considered among other factors that may have a direct impact on the yields of EOs obtained. To explain the impact of the extraction technique used on EO yield, ultimately, our group found zero yields of Myrtus communis and Eucalyptus globulus EOs by steam distillation at laboratory scale; however, the EO yields of these two plants were improved to 0.05% and 0.06%, respectively, when the extraction was carried out using a semi-industrial hydrodistillator (no published data).

Table 1. Chemical Composition (%) of bergamot, lemon and orange EOs acclimated to Algeria from fresh peel parts as identified by GC-MS analysis.

No.Compounds *,•,▪RI aPercentage (%) b
Bergamot EOLemon EOOrange EO
1α-Pinene93500.7703.0700.22
2β-Phellandrene96401.92--
3β-Pinene98003.4517.0401.62
4β-Myrcene990-02.3703.20
5Octanal100601.25--
6Carene1020--01.09
7Limonene103377.3751.4002.20
8Ocimene1048--02.24
9γ-Terpinene1060-13.46-
10β-Linalool108001.22-23.37
11Decanal117500.83--
12Nerol1207-01.50-
13Geraniol1234-02.43-
14Linanyle acetate1255--37.29
15Citral1336--00.34
16Neryl acetate1365-01.0504.10
17Geranyl acetate1384--06.35
18Caryophyllene1428--01.12
19Naphtalene-01.42--
20Isocaryophyllene--01.23-
Total identified components (%)88.2193.5583.14
Yields (%)0.600.700.58

The components of EOs are important, as their qualitative and quantitative composition determines the characteristics of the oils and subsequent effect on its antimicrobial potential. Chemical analysis showed the number of components determined for the three EOs (Table 1), which represented 88.21%, 93.55% and 83.14% of the total EO of bergamot, lemon and orange, respectively. This analysis shows that on the one hand, most of the identified substances are monoterpene hydrocarbons, and secondly limonene (mass spectra see Figure 1) is undoubtedly the major component EO of orange (77.37%) and lemon (51.40%). Conversely EO of bergamot is dominated by the presence of two major compounds: linanyle acetate (mass spectra see Figure 2) (37.30%) and linalool (mass spectra see Figure 3) (23.37%). These two components alone constitute 60.65% of the total identified. Other monoterpene compounds identified in the same EO have significant levels as geranyl acetate (6.35%), neryl acetate (4.10%), β-myrcene (3.20%), ocimene (2.24%), and in smaller quantities include β-pinene (1.62%), caryophyllene (1.11%), carene (1.08%), α-pinene (0.22%) and citral (0.34%). In addition limonene is the major component of orange oil, other compounds such as β-pinene (mass spectral see Figure 4) (3.45%), β-phellandrene (1.92%), naphthalene (1.42%), octanal (1.24%), linalool (1.21%), and some form of traces decanal (0.83%) and α-pinene (0.77%) are also present in this oil. Similar findings have been reported by Eleni et al. [17]; and Aazza et al. [20] who reported that bergamot EOs consist mainly of linalyl acetate and linalool.

Our results are quite different from those obtained by Svoboda and Greenaway [21] on the orange (Osbeck Hongiian variety from China). The chemical composition of this EO consists mainly of limonene (93.60%) and β-myrcene (2.00%), and minor compounds such as decanal (0.82%), sabinene (0.70%), α-pinene (0.40%) and β-phellandrene (0.30%), totaling 88.21%. By studying the chemical composition of EOs of orange and lemon, Moufida and Marzouk [22] confirmed that these EOs consist mainly of limonene. This compound varies between 68%–98% for orange and 45%–76% for bergamot, and linalool that is shown at low levels 0.20% and 10.23% respectively, and compounds of neral/geranial (together are often referred to citral) are present in lemon, orange and bergamot EOs at concentrations ranging from 0.10%, 0.70% and 3.00% respectively.

Figure 1. Mass spectra of limonene.

Figure 1. Mass spectra of limonene.

Figure 2. Mass spectra of linalyl acetate.

Figure 2. Mass spectra of linalyl acetate.

Figure 3. Mass spectra of linalool.

Figure 3. Mass spectra of linalool.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Clupeiformes (Herrings) > Clupeidae (Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) > Alosinae
Etymology: Sardina:Latin and Greek, sarda = sardine; name related to the island of Sardinia (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; freshwater; brackish; pelagic-neritic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 10 - 100 m (Ref. 5286), usually 25 - 100 m (Ref. 54866).   Subtropical; 68°N - 14°N, 32°W - 43°E (Ref. 54866)

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Northeast Atlantic: Iceland (rare) and North Sea, southward to Bay de Gorée, Senegal. Mediterranean (common in the western part and in Adriatic Sea, rare in the eastern part), Sea of Marmara and Black Sea.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm14.8  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 27.5 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 74552); common length : 20.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 188); max. reported age: 15 years (Ref. 35388)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsalspines (total): 0; Dorsalsoft rays (total): 13-21; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 12 - 23. Body sub-cylindrical, belly rather rounded (but more compressed in juveniles). Hind margin of gill opening smoothly rounded (without fleshy outgrowths) ; 3 to 5 distinct body striae radiating downward on lower part of operculum; lower gill rakers not becoming shorter at angle of first gill arch, the upper series not overlapping the lower. Last 2 anal fin rays enlarged.

Littoral species (Ref. 6808). Form schools, usually at depths of 25 to 55 or even 100 m by day, rising to 10 to 35 m at night. Feed mainly on planktonic crustaceans, also on larger organisms. Spawn in batches (Ref. 51846), in the open sea or near the coast, producing 50,000-60,000 eggs with a mean diameter of 1.5 mm (Ref. 35388). Marketed fresh, frozen or canned. Also utilized dried or salted and smoked; can be pan-fried, broiled and microwaved (Ref. 9988).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Breeds at 20 to 25 m, near the shore or as much as 100 km out to sea.

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeioidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: highly commercial

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 7.1 - 17.3, mean 10.3 (based on 553 cells).

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 1.0000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].

Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00676 (0.00587 - 0.00778), b=3.06 (3.02 - 3.10), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).

Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.1   ±0.1 se; Based on diet studies.

Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.23-0.5; tm=1-2; tmax=15).

Prior r = 0.54, 2 SD range = 0.27 - 1.10, log(r) = -0.62, SD log(r) = 0.35, Based on: 3 M, 50 K, 5 tgen, 5 tmax, 11 Fec records

Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (27 of 100) .

Price category (Ref. 80766):   Low.

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