Impacts of natural disasters on environmental and socio-economic systems: what makes the difference?1
Herlander Mata-LimaI; Andreilcy Alvino-BorbaII; Adilson PinheiroIII; Abel Mata-LimaV; José António AlmeidaVI
IInvestigador Integrado do CERENA - Centro de Recursos Naturais e AmbientResearcher at CERENA - Centre for the Environment and Natural Resources,Instituto Superior Técnico da Universidade Técnica de Lisboa. Higher Technical Institute at the Technical University of Lisbon. Professor Visitante do Centro de Engenharia, Modelagem e Ciências Sociais Aplicadas (CECS), Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), São Paulo, BrasVisiting Professor at the Centre of Engineering, Modelling and Applied Social Sciences (CESC), Federal University of ABC (UFABC), São Paulo, Brazil. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
IICalaboradora do CERENA - Centro de Recursos Naturais e Ambiente, Instituto Superior Técnico da Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Lisboa (IST/UTL), Portugal. Bolsista do CNPq, BrasiMember of staff at CERENA - Centre for the Environment and Natural Resources, Higher Technical Institute at the Technical University of Lisbon, Lisbon (IST/UTL), Portugal. CNPq scholarship, Brazil. Email: email@example.com
IIIFundação Universidade Regional de Blumenau (FURB), Santa Catarina, BrasiBlumenau Regional University Foundation (FURB), Santa Catarina, Brazil. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
IVCTB, Universidade Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain). E-mail: email@example.comCTB, Madrid Polytechnic University (Spain). Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
VCICEGe - Centro de Investigação em Ciência e Engenharia Geológica, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade Nova de Lisboa (FCT/UNL), Portugal.CICEGe - Centre of Research in Geological Science and Engineering, Faculty of Sciences and Technology of the New University of Lisbon (FCT/UNL), Portugal. Email: email@example.com
This study addresses the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of natural disasters and focuses on the factors that can contribute to reducing damage both in material terms and in terms of loss of human life. A reflective analysis was carried out - based on a qualitative and quantitative approach - integrating environmental, economic and social dimensions of sustainability as well hydro-meteorological, climatological and geophysical paradigms of disasters (Hazard-Risk-Vulnerability-Resilience). Our objective is to identify key variables in the reduction of vulnerability and the prevention and mitigation of the impacts of natural disasters. The results stress that social capital, related to social and economic structures, exerts a significant influence as a factor which reduces the vulnerability of affected communities.
Key-words: Natural disasters; Environmental and socioeconomic impacts; Vulnerability; Resilience; Risk Management.
Natural disasters are caused by hydro-meteorological, climatological, geophysical and biological phenomena which adversely impact on the natural and built environment of affected regions. Their effects in terms of victims and material damage exceed the capacity for self-recovery of local communities, making external assistance necessary (vide GUHA-SAPIR et al., 2012; NOY, 2010; ALCÁNTARA-AYALA, 2002, p. 109-110).
The World Bank & United Nations report (2010) states that disasters expose the cumulative effects of decisions (individual and collective) previously taken in terms of land management (including unregulated growth of urban areas), construction techniques, implementation of sanitation infrastructure and low investment in educational programs, poverty reduction and social integration, among others. Such decisions combined with high intensity natural events (e.g. floods, landslides, storms and earthquakes) provoke an array of socioeconomic and environmental impacts.
A trans-disciplinary approach to the underlying concept of natural disasters suggests that they are characterized by naturally occurring events whose consequences are often aggravated by man-made actions which surpass the capacity of man's built infrastructure to contain. They result in tragic disturbances in the social and environmental sphere together with socioeconomic impacts of extreme severity, such as high levels of material damage, the loss of life and means of subsistence for affected communities, and the spread of infectious diseasesi due to the degradation of sanitary conditions. They are consequently responsible for a series of adverse environmental and socio-economic impacts due to the way they cause disturbances (or imbalances) in the environmental (CHINO et al., 2011; McENTIRE, 2001; ADRIANTO & MATSUDA, 2002), economic (DAVIS et al., 2012; FREITAS et al., 2012; LOAYZA et al 2012; NOY & VU, 2010; UN, 1999) and social (GUHA-SAPIR et al., 2012; TAKAHASHI et al., 2012; O'BRIEN et al., 2006; YODMANI, 2001) aspects of sustainability.
In the last two decades many studies have consistently presented forecasts and demonstrations of an increase in the frequency and intensity of natural disasters (e.g. hurricanes, floods, droughts and associated forest fires, earthquakes, tornadoes, among others), above all those related to climate factors (vide GUHA-SAPIR et al., 2012; IPCC, 2007; VINK et al., 1998) and the relation between natural disasters and the macro-economic indicators of different countries (SCHUMACHER & STROBL, 2011; LOAYZA et al. 2012; NOY, 2010).
This issue has taken on particular importance as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007) report states that one of the consequences of global warming is the likely increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme climatic events (above all in tropical regions), which together with disasters caused by geophysical factors (e.g. earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions) comprise a strong threat to developing countries (NAUDE, 2010; IFRC, 2003, 2010; O'BRIEN et al., 2006). As is well known, these countries have low resilience in face of disasters (EBEKES & COMBES, 2013; CUARESMA, 2010; WORLD BANK & UNITED NATIONS, 2010).
Natural disasters, even when they are classified as small or moderate (DATAR et al., 2013), are responsible for adverse socio-economic and environmental impacts (GUHA-SAPIR et al., 2012), particularly in underdeveloped regions (or regions in development) (TOYA & SKIDMORE, 2007; WORLD BANK & UNITED NATIONS, 2010). This is due to both a lack of preventive action plans and resources and to low resilience, inherent to low levels of social capitalii (vide TOYA & SKIDMORE, 2007, p. 20-21; JACOBI & MONTEIRO, 2006, p. 27; ALCÁNTARA-AYALA, 2002, p. 108), which contribute to the prolongation of the adverse effects on the environment and society. This prolonged duration causes a greater spatial dispersal of environmental impacts where natural agents (e.g. water, wind) transport the problem beyond its source and aggravate socio-economic impacts by disturbing economic activity (e.g. agriculture, trade, tourism) and increasing social vulnerability.
As an example of the influence of social capital it is worth emphasizing Alcántara-Ayala (2002, p.108) who argues that one of the causes of natural disasters in poor or developing countries is:
...related to the historical development of these countries, where the economic, social, political and cultural conditions are poor and consequently lead to increased vulnerability to natural disasters (economic, social, political and cultural vulnerability) [our translation].
This paper addresses natural disasters whose origin and scale are not limited to natural causes, in other words where the causes and the effects are also closely related to demographic and industrial growth, something inherent to the socio-economic growth of contemporary societies. The industrial and demographic growth, which encompasses the combined effects of population in a biological sense and the effects of production-consumption in a technological sense (ALVINO-BORBA & MATA-LIMA, 2011; WETZEL, 1996), is normally associated to an increase in density whether in terms of population or infrastructure (built environment), where both factors have aspects and impacts (environmental and socio-economic) which contribute to an increase in the scale of natural disasters and to the worsening of vulnerabilities of affected communities.
It is important to stress that in accordance to the ISO 14001 norm: (i) environmental aspect is the element of an organization's activities, products and services which may interact with the environment; while (ii) environmental impact is any change to the environment, adverse or beneficial, which is a result, fully or partly, of environmental aspects of the organization.
In this context, the environmental aspect is related to the cause of the problem or to an environmental improvement, while the environmental impact is related to the effect of the problem or to an environmental improvement. Therefore, environmental aspects should be identified based on the following factors (vide, e.g., MARAZZA et al.2010; UNIVERSITY OF STRATHCLYDE, 2000): (i) social inclusion; (ii) economic development; (iii) use of resources; (iv) transport; (v) environmental and ecological protection.
The aspects addressed above are a list of variables which must be considered in the production of development programs and the implementation of disaster prevention plans. Sustainable development, as is well known, must address environmental, social and economic aspects in a transversal and balanced way, always using the best available technology to achieve stated objectives, as presented in Figure 1.
The sustainability triangle allows us to leave aside many considerations which have been widely addressed in previously published studies, such as that of MAUERHOFER (2008, p. 498).
Origin and occurrence
Natural disasters are generally classified as having hydrological, meteorological, climatic, geophysical or biological causes/origins (GUHA-SAPIR et al., 2012). In this paper natural disasters caused by hydrological and meteorological phenomena will be grouped in one category denominated hydro-meteorologic, and will not include disasters with a biological origin (these are less common), as presented in Table 1.
Figure 2 (modified from GUHA-SAPIR et al., 2012, p. 3) shows the global occurrence of natural disasters from 1990 to 2011 and their respective victims.
The approach taken in terms of addressing natural disasters is separated into four (4) disaster paradigms (cf.FRERKS et al., 2011, p. 106): Hazard-Risk-Vulnerability-Resilience. Table 2 is a descriptive summary of these paradigms where a distinction is made for those disasters where, in terms of intervention plans, an effort is made to reduce (↓) and increase (↑).}
Environmental and socio-economic aspects of disasters
The environmental aspect (stricto sensu) of natural disasters has been widely addressed in the specialized technical bibliography (vide, e.g., SRINIVAS & NAKAGAWA, 2008, p. 6; AERTS & BOTZEN, 2011) and a summary is presented in Table 3.
This section aims to highlight the strong relationship of interdependence which exists between protection and conservation of bio-physical factors (e.g. land, water, atmosphere, fauna and flora) and socio-economic development. The growth in the development of rural tourismiii (HAVEN-TANG & JONES, 2012) which essentially exploits activities inherent to rural regions is an example which underlines this affirmation (HAVEN-TANG & JONES, 2012; SRINIVAS & NAKAGAWA, 2008). On the other hand, it is known that natural disasters are closely related to coastal zones (YASUHARA et al., 2012; COSTANZA & FARLEY, 2007), fundamental elements in providing a competitive advantage to seasonal summer tourism in developing countries (in Africa, Latin America and Asia).
Table 3 synthesizes the environmental aspects of a man-made nature which exacerbate natural disasters. The table highlights a number of conspicuous examples of environmental aspects (causes of impacts) connected to engineering mega-projects which are likely to cause large-scale population movements, among many other significant negative environmental impacts with a wide variety of consequences. These projects are usually supported by viability studies which point to the generation of multiple positive socio-economic externalities for the regions where they are implemented, such as economic growth resulting from the revitalization of existing activities, the creation of new investment opportunities and, above all, employment for the local population (vide, e.g., MATA-LIMA, 2009).
Table 3 helps to clarify the assertions made by other authors (TOYA & SKIDMORE, 2007, p. 20; ALCÁNTARA-AYALA, 2002, p. 108; YODMANI, 2001, p. 2) that natural disasters are not extreme phenomena exclusively caused by nature. Indeed, given that vulnerability is a determining factor in the impact of disasters it can be argued that the development model adopted by the human race also significantly contributes to disasters taking place.
The growth in socio-economic aspects of disasters has shown an increase (vide Figure 3) due to the direct impacts on vulnerable communities. These often conceal environmental impacts and therefore are deserving of special attention on the part of agents, politicians and researchers who are responsible for finding solutions to mitigate their effects.
Loayza et al. (2012, p. 1317) recently stressed that natural disasters cause significant economic and physical damage whose effects can spread beyond the immediate locality. They also observed that the impact of disasters on economic growth is not always negative and that developing countries are more vulnerable to these disasters as more sectors are affected. This is intrinsically related to the heightened degree of vulnerability and the low resistance of these countries. The WORLD BANK & UNITED NATIONS (2010) draws attention to the fact that in underdeveloped regions economic growth rarely occurs after natural disasters as the intensity of the negative effects depends on the structure of the economy. Moreover, it is known that regions with low social capital also have weak economic structures and experience difficulties in securing adequate resources to address the problems caused by disasters.
It is also important to account for the following peculiarities of socio-economic aspects:
Remittances significantly mitigate the impacts of natural disasters in terms of the number of victims in developing countries, accounting for between 8% and 17% of Gross National Product (GNP) (cf. EBEKE & COMBES, 2013);
As natural disasters affect the poorest countries more than others, the most vulnerable and marginalized populations have to deal with the most serious consequences (FREITAS et al., 2012; IFRC, 2003, 2010).
Table 4 is a good illustration of how the vulnerability of poor regions contributes to a significant increase in the negative impacts of natural disasters. Furthermore, based on data from the Center for Research on the Epidemiology of Disaster (CRED), globally there are more deaths from disasters and higher economic costs as time progresses, as O'BRIEN et al. (2006) emphasizes;
The increase in the number of disasters and their consequences is related to an increase in the vulnerability of communities throughout the world as a result of the development model adopted. The increase of vulnerability is not uniform, as there are significant variations between regions, nations, provinces, cities, communities, socio-economic classes, castes and even gender (cf. YODMANI, 2001);
Urban areas benefit from having better physical infrastructure (e.g. hospitals, civil protection services, sanitation systems and other logistics) and administrative support systems (e.g. emergency plans); indeed, prevention and intervention plans are more likely to exist in urban areas (IFRC, 2010). However, the fact that the largest cities in the world are in poor and developing countries - such as São Paulo, whose problems are highlighted by JACOBI & MONTEIRO (2006, p. 32-33) and which is located in a country where hydro-meteorological disasters predominate - makes the scenario extremely worrying as these cities lack the above mentioned infrastructure.
Management of environmental and socio-economic impacts associated to natural disasters
In the previous sections we concentrated on establishing a relation between the environmental aspects and impacts of the most common natural disasters (e.g. floods, landslides), demonstrating the interdependence between the social, economic and environmental aspects of sustainability. This approach aims to make clear the complicit relationship between these three aspects of sustainability and the four disaster paradigms as a starting point in order to draw up and implement a management plan for preventing disasters. This effort is fundamental, as already mentioned, since reducing vulnerability depends on systematically tackling the complex interactions between inherent physical, environmental and social factors (vide, e.g., INGRAM et al.2006).
Though it is not humanly possible to adopt measures to eliminate the extreme phenomena which cause natural disasters, preventive planning is vital in mitigating impacts on socio-economic and environmental systems, particularly those which are the most vulnerable, as a way of increasing the degree of resilience of local communities. In this context it is worth stressing the words of McENTIRE (2001, p. 189): "The central argument to be made is that vulnerability is, or should be, the key concept for disaster scholarship and reduction". This concern reflects the final recommendation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) which emphasizes the need for an integrated approach to include vulnerability, risk evaluation and disaster management by focusing on the prevention and mitigation of impacts (UNISDR, 2003; WORLD BANK & UNITED NATIONS, 2010).
The management approach should be flexible and preventive, adopting the following stages. It is important to emphasize that often efficient preventive management may require cross-border cooperation (e.g. involving a number of countries) in cases where the scale and nature of the disaster demand it (e.g. floods in shared water basins, forest fires in border areas).
Identifying environmental aspects and impacts is fundamental in managing risks, and this should be the first step in a risk management study. This first stage is called establishment of context as Pojasek's flowchart shows (2008, p.97) in Figure 4.
It is clear that establishment of context is of paramount importance in evaluating the degree of severity of impacts, in that these are more pronounced (and socially visible) when dealing with urban and populous regions where a considerable amount of infrastructure is built in risk zones, drastically affecting socio-economic aspects. As risk analysis is essentially based on the probability of a given event occurring and the degree of severity of the resulting consequences (vide, e.g., KORTENHAUS E KAISER, 2009; TOPUZ et al., 2011), it is evident that the local bio-physical and socio-economic context must be assigned a determining role in the contextualization and evaluation of the risk.
Summary and recommendations
The answer to the question contained in the title (what makes the difference?) can be found, above all, in social capital, as this has a determining influence as a factor of vulnerability given that the developed nations (e.g. Japan, USA) - despite having significantly fewer victims of natural disasters - are no less affected by extreme phenomena (e.g. hydro-meteorological) capable of provoking disasters than the poorest nations, as underlined by other authors (e.g. GUHA et al., 2012; KAHN, 2005).
The following aspects which play a key role in the mitigation of natural disasters should be emphasized:
Natural disasters should be approached from a trans-disciplinary perspective as their prevention and mitigation requires technical-scientific cooperation between different areas of science, engineering, economics, health, social studies and law. In addition, stakeholder participation (e.g. local community) is a sine-qua-non in reducing their socio-economic and environmental impacts.
Vulnerability must be dealt with by increasing the social capital of communities which are located in regions of heightened risk of disasters. This can be achieved through education/training and by fostering citizenship which advocates participation in collective actions; reducing isolation by creating networks which encourage contact and exchange of experiences between different communities with concerns in common in terms of the risk management of disasters; among other actions aiming at building social capital.
Natural disasters in developing countries cause impacts, particularly in terms of the degradation of health (DATAR et al., 2013), due to diseases related to a worsening of environmental sanitation conditions, as Takahashi, et al. (2012) has emphasized;
Globally, greater attention and more proactive intervention is necessary (in terms of prevention planning) on the part of governments and NGOs, as set out by the World Bank & United Nations (2010);
There needs to be investment and natural disaster prevention subsidies as well as authorities and organizations who are directly responsible for preventing disasters, as this can significantly reduce the number of victims and extent of material damage;
Lessons must be learnt from disasters and the post-disaster period should be an opportunity to implement good practices in terms of land use and integrating flexible measures instead of rushing to rebuild on a huge scale which, in some cases, may increase the vulnerability of local communities to future events.
Among aspects which help to mitigate disasters, social capital is fundamental in creating the conditions to reduce vulnerability, and consequently, the dependency of communities (or nations) on external initiatives.
This is because social capital is paramount in creating the necessary social, economic and political structures (including cooperation and inclusion in international networks) to foster socio-economic development based on an agreed path of sustainable development. This in turn contributes to a reduction of the level of risk communities are exposed to.
Furthermore, it is important to stress that an analysis of the spatial-temporal evolution of the data on disasters shows that nations which have a higher gross national product (GDP), a more educated population, more social and political freedom providing the conditions for effective and active citizenship, and a more comprehensive financial system suffer fewer losses when extreme phenomena occur which provoke natural disasters (vide, e.g., OXLEY, 2013; TOYA & SKIDMORE, 2007).
In terms of preventing natural disasters it is extremely important to create an appropriate context involving pro-active measures where community adaptation to climate changes and to reducing exposure to risk leads to both a reduction in vulnerability and, consequently, a reduction in the scale of the socio-economic impacts which are evident today in poverty-stricken regions where disasters occur.
i Concerning infectious diseases TAKAHASHI et al. (2012) emphasise the fact that the affected community is exposed to infectious contamination agents during the initial post-disaster phases, such as rescue and recovery in provisional camps.
ii Social capital is the result of structural characteristics of social organization which encourage the formation of networks, standards, value systems, relations of trust and participative engagement so as to facilitate coordination and cooperation for the common good. (vide, e.g.PARK et al., 2012, p. 1512).
iii Tourism should not only be interpreted as activities related to the agricultural sector, as it encompasses various activities, such as engaging with Nature (e.g. ornithology), adventure activities, sport, health (e.g. ethnomedicine), education, art and heritage (vide, e.g., SU, 2011, p. 1438).
ADRIANTO, L., MATSUDA, Y. Developing Economic Vulnerability Indices of Environmental Disasters in Small Island Regions. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, v. 22, p. 393-414, 2002. [ Links ]
AERTS, J., BOTZEN, W. Flood-resilient waterfront development in New York City: Bridging flood insurance, building codes, and flood zoning. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., v.1227, p.1-80, 2011. [ Links ]
ALCÁNTARA-AYALA, I. Geomorphology, Natural Hazards, Vulnerability and Prevention of Natural Disasters in Developing Countries. Geomorphology, v. 47, n. 2-4, p. 107-124, 2002. [ Links ]
ALVINO-BORBA, A., MATA-LIMA, H. Exclusão e Inclusão Social nas Sociedades Modernas: um olhar sobre a situação em Portugal e na União Europeia. Serviço Social & Sociedade, n. 106, p. 219-240, 2011. [ Links ]
ALVINO-BORBA, A., MATA-LIMA, A., MATA-LIMA, H. Desafios Ambientais e Estratégias para Desenvolvimento de Investigação e Programas de Intervenção Social. Ambiente & Sociedade, v. 15, n. 1, p. 147-155, 2012. [ Links ]
CHINO, M., NAKAYAMA, H., NAGAI, H., TERADA, H., KATATA, G., YAMAZAWA, H. Preliminary Estimation of Release Amounts of 131I and 137Cs Accidentally Discharged from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant into te Atmosphere. Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, v. 48, n. 7, p. 1129-1134, 2011. [ Links ]
COSTANZA, R., FARLEY, J. Ecological Economics of Coastal Disasters: introduction to the special issue. Ecological Economics, v. 63, n. 3, p. 249-253, 2007. [ Links ]
CUARESMA, J. Natural Disasters and Human Capital Accumulation. The World Bank Economic Review, v. 24, p. 280-302, 2010. [ Links ]
DAI, F.C., LEE, C.F., DENG, J.H., THAM, L.G. The 1786 Earthquake-Triggered Landslide Dam and Subsequent Dam-Break Flood on the Dadu River, Southwestern China. Geomorphology, v. 65, p. 205-221, 2005. [ Links ]
DATAR, A, LIU, J, LINNEMAYR, A, STECHER, C. The impact of natural disasters on child health and investments in rural India. Social Science & Medicine, v. 76, p. 83-91, 2013. [ Links ]
DAVIS, C., KEILIS-BOROK, V., KOSSOBOKOV, V., SOLOVIEV, A. Advance prediction of March 11, 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake: a missed opportunity for disaster preparedness. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, v. 1, n. 1, p. 17-32, 2012. [ Links ]
EBEKE, C., COMBES, J.L. Do Remittances Dampen the Effect of Natural Disasters on Output Growth Volatility in Developing Countries? Applied Economics, v. 45, n. 16, p. 2241-2254, 2013. [ Links ]
FREITAS, C.M., CARVALHO, M.L., XIMENES, E.F., ARRAES, E.F., GOMES, J.O. Vulnerabilidade Socioambiental, Redução de Riscos de Desastres e Construção da Resiliência - lições do terremoto no Haiti e das chuvas fortes na Região Serrana, Brasil. Ciência & Saúde Coletiva, v. 17, n. 6, p. 1577-1586, 2012. [ Links ]
FRERKS, G., WARNER, J., WEIJS, B. The Politics of Vulnerability and Resilience. Ambiente & Sociedade, v. 14, n. 2, p. 105-122, 2011. [ Links ]
GIBBS, M.T. Resilience: what is it and what does it mean for marine policymakers? Marine Policy, v. 33, p. 322-331, 2009. [ Links ]
GUHA-SAPIR, D., VOS, F., BELOW, R., PONSERRE, S. Annual Disaster Statistical Review 2011: the numbers and trends. CRED, Brussels, 2012. Disponível em: <http://www.cred.be/sites/default/files/ADSR_2011.pdf> [ Links ].
HAVEN-TANG, C., JONES, E. Local Leadership for Rural Tourism Development: a case study of Adventa, Monmouthshire, UK. Tourism Management Perspectives, v. 4, p. 28-35, 2012. [ Links ]
HUAN, TC, BEAMAN, J, SHELBY, L. No-escape natural disaster: mitigating impacts on tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, v. 31, n. 2, p. 255-273, 2004. [ Links ]
IFRC. World Disasters Report 2003. International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC), Geneva, 2003. [ Links ]
IFRC. World Disasters Report 2010. Focus on Urban Risk. International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC), Geneva, 2010. Disponível em: <http://www.ifrc.org/Global/Publications/disasters/WDR/wdr2010/WDR2010-full.pdf> [ Links ]
INGRAM, J., FRANCO, G., RIO, C.R., KHAZAI, B. Post-disaster recovery dilemmas: challenges in balancing short-term and long-term needs for vulnerability reduction. Environmental Science & Policy, v. 9, p. 607-613, 2006. [ Links ]
IPCC. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernamental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007. [ Links ]
ISO 14001. Sistema de Gestão Ambiental - Requisitos e linhas de orientação para a sua utilização (ISO 14001: 2004). International Standard Organisation (ISO), 2004. Disponível em: <http://www.anet.pt/downloads/legislacao/NP%20EN%20ISO%2014001%202004.pdf> [ Links ].
JACOBI, P.R., MONTEIRO, F. Social Capital and Institutional Performance: methodological and theoretical discussion on the water basin committees in metropolitan Sao Paulo - Brazil. Ambiente & Sociedade, v. 9, n. 2, p. 25-45, 2006. [ Links ]
JONES, J.A., SWANSON, F.J., WEMPLE, B.C., SNYDER, K.U. Effects of Roads on Hydrology, Geomorphology, and Disturbance Patches in Stream Networks. Conservation Biology, v. 14, n. 1, p. 76-85, 2000. [ Links ]
KAHN, M. The Death Toll from Natural Disasters: the role of income, geography, and institutions. The Review of Economics and Statistics, v. 87, n. 2, p. 271-284, 2005. [ Links ]
KLEIN, R.J.T., NICHOLLS, R.J., THOMALLA, F. Resilience to Natural Hazards: how useful is this concept? Global Environmental Change Parte B: Environmental Hazards, v. 5, n. 1-2, 2003. [ Links ]
KORTENHAUS, A., KAISER, G. Lessons learned from flood risk analyses at the North Sea Coast. Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue 56, p. 822-826, 2009. [ Links ]
LIN, A., IKUTA, R., RAO, G. Tsunami Run-up Associated with Co-seismic Thrust Slip Produced by the 2011 Mw 9.0 Off Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake, Japan. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 337-338, p. 121-132, 2012. [ Links ]
LOAYZA, N., OLABERRÍA, E., RIGOLINI, J., CHRISTIAENSEN, J.R. Natural Disasters and Growth: going beyond the averages. World Development, v. 40, n. 7, p. 1317-1336, 2012. [ Links ]
MARAZZA D., BANDINI V., CONTIN A. Ranking Environmental Aspects in Environmental Management Systems: a new method tested on local authorities. Environment International, v. 36, p. 168-179, 2010. [ Links ]
MATA-LIMA, H. Human-Environment-Society Interactions: dam projects as a case example. Environmental Quality Management, v. 15, n. 3, p. 71-76, 2009. [ Links ]
MAUERHOFER, V. 3-D Sustainability: an approach for priority setting in situation of conflicting interests towards a sustainable development. Ecological Economics, v. 64, p. 496-506, 2008. [ Links ]
McENTIRE, D.A. Triggering Agents, Vulnerabilities and Disaster Reduction: towards a holistic paradigm. Disaster Prevention and Management, v. 10, n. 3, p. 189-196, 2001. [ Links ]
NAUDE, W. The Determinants of Migration from Sub-Saharan African Countries. Journal of African Economies, v. 19, p. 330-56, 2010. [ Links ]
NEDEL, A., SAUSEN, T.M., SAITO, S.M. Zoneamento dos Desastres Naturais Ocorridos no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul no Período 1989-2009: granizo e vendaval. Revista Brasileira de Meteorologia, v. 27, n. 2, p. 119-126, 2012. [ Links ]
NOY, I. The Macroeconomic Consequences of Disasters. Journal of Development Economics, v. 88, p. 221-231, 2009. [ Links ]
NOY, I & NUALSRI, T.B. The Economics of Natural Disasters in a Developing Country: the case of Vietnam. Journal of Asian Economics, v. 21, p. 345-354, 2010. [ Links ]
O'BRIEN, G., O'KEEFE, P., ROSE, J., WISNER, B. Climate Change and Disaster Management. Disaster, v. 30, n. 1, pp. 64-80, 2006. [ Links ]
OXLEY, MC. A "people-centred principles-based" post-Hyogo framework to strengthen the resilience of nations and communities. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, v. 4, p. 1-9, 2013. [ Links ]
PARK, D.B., LEE, K.W., CHOI, H.S., YOON, Y. Factors Influencing Social Capital in Rural Tourism Communities in South Korea. Tourism Management, v. 33, p. 1511-1520, 2012. [ Links ]
POJASEK, R. Risk Management 101. Environmental Quality Management. v.13, n.3, p. 95-101, 2008. [ Links ]
REBELO, F. Um Novo Olhar Sobre os Riscos? O Exemplo das Cheias Rápidas (Flash Floods) em Domínio Mediterrâneo. Territorium, v. 15, p. 7-14, 2008. [ Links ]
SCHUMACHER, I, STROBL, E. Economic development and losses due to natural disasters: the role of hazard exposure. Ecological Economics, v. 72, p. 97-105, 2011. [ Links ]
SKOGDALEN, J.E., VINNEM, J.E. Quantitative Risk Analysis of Oil and Gas Drilling, Using Deepwater Horizon as Case Study. Reliability Engineering and System Safety, v. 100, p. 58-66, 2012. [ Links ]
SRINIVAS, H., NAKAGAWA, Y. Environmental Implications for Disaster Preparedness: lessons learnt from the Indian Ocean Tsunami. Journal of Environmental Management, v. 89, p. 4-13, 2008. [ Links ]
SU, B. Rural Tourism in China. Tourism Management, v. 32, p. 1438-1441, 2011. [ Links ]
TAKAHASHI, T., GOTO, M., YOSHIDA, H., SUMINO, H., MATSUI, H. Infectious Diseases After the 2011 Great East Japan Esarthquake. Journal of Experimental & Clinical Medicine, v. 4, n. 1, p. 20-23, 2012. [ Links ]
TOMINAGA, L. K., SANTORO, J., AMARAL, R. Desastres Naturais: conhecer para prevenir. Instituto Geológico, São Paulo, 2009. [ Links ]
TOYA, H., SKIDMORE, M. Economic development and the impacts of natural disasters. Economics Letters, v. 94, p. 20-25, 2007. [ Links ]
TOPUZ, E., TALINLI, I., AYDIN, E. Integration of environmental and human health risk assessment for industries using hazardous materials: A quantitative multi criteria approach for environmental decision makers. Environment International, v.37, n.2, p. 393-403, 2011. [ Links ]
UN. Progress in the Implementation of the Programme of Action for Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States: climate change and sea level rise. UN-Economic and Social Council, Report for the Secretary General, 19 - 30 April, 1999. [ Links ]
UNISDR. World Conference on Disaster Reduction. The United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR). 18-22 Janeiro 2005, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan, 2005. Disponível em: <http://www.unisdr.org/2005/wcdr/wcdr-index.htm> [ Links ].
UNIVERSITY OF STRATHCLYDE. Environmental Assessment Method, 2000. Disponível em: <http://www.esru.strath.ac.uk/EandE/Web_sites/99-00/bio_fuel_cells/groupproject/library/environmentassess/text.htm>. Acesso: 08-08-2012. [ Links ]
VINK, G., ALLEN, R.M., CHAPIN, J., CROOKS, M., FRALEY, W., KRANTZ, J., LAVIGNE, A.M., LECUYER, A., MACCOLL, E.K., MORGAN, W.J., RIES, B., ROBINSON, E., RODRIQUEZ, K., SMITH, M., SPONBERG, K. (1998). Why the United States Is Becoming More Vulnerable to Natural Disasters. Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, v. 79, n. 44, p. 533-537. [ Links ]
YASUHARA, K., KOMINE, H., MURAKAMI, S., CHEN, G., MITANI, Y., DUC, D.M. Effects of Climate Change on Geo-disasters in Coastal Zones and Their Adaptation. Geotextiles and Geomenbranes, v. 30, p. 24-34, 2012. [ Links ]
YODMANI, S. "Disaster Risk Management and Vulnerability Reduction: protecting the poor". Paper presented at the Asian and Pacific Forum on Poverty, 5 - 9 February 2001, Manila, Philippines, 2001. [ Links ]
WETZEL, R. Limnologia. Lisboa: Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, 1996. [ Links ]
WORLD BANK & UNITED NATIONS. Natural hazards, unnatural disasters: the economics of effective prevention. Washington, DC: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank, 2010. [ Links ]
Submitted on: 13/08/2012
Accepted on: 01/07/2013
1. Acknowledgements: O primeiro autor agradece ao CNPq pelo apoio concedido no âmbito do projeto "Geo-environmental modelling using strategic environmental assessment that incorporates biophysical factors and stakeholder engagement via transdisciplinary approach" (Processos 407507/2012-4 & 401425/2012-6) que estimulou a realização deste artigo.The first author would like to thank CNPq (Brazilian Council for Scientific and Technological Development) for their support for the "Geo-environmental modelling using strategic environmental assessment that incorporates biophysical factors and stakeholder engagement via transdisciplinary approach" project (Processes 407507/2012-4 & 401425/2012-6) which led to the writing of this article.
Crowdfunding for natural disasters compassionate blog what lessons are being learnt from st disaster essay. Main factors which affect the social change in every society short essay on earthquake pdf indigenous myths carry warning signals about disasters. Flood disaster. Calamity planet earth u s department of defense photo science topic good topics argument gujarat essays custom. Nature human and papers earthquakes terrorism gxart urdu cause effect we can do your homework five important types sinhala language arts calamities com tag newshour.
On natural disaster of boulder asthma disasters essay in sinhala u s department defense photo essay. Homework help order environmental hazards and the most terrifying linkbeef. Difference between man made cause examples effect we can do your advertising ad analysis an introduction to. Full project flood tropical cyclones essays kidzera. Central asia thousands yearly but little sri lanka witness doit ip witness. Writing admission tsunami th a < custom paper service. Impacts agriculture rangeland reduction hyperbase experiences sharing school deadliest st century. School. Slavery caused racism images about helping people service dogs. Words to drought.
Trinity preparation th grade ise ensuring more effective responses to natural disasters essay on calamities causes and remedies. U s department of defense photo about earthquake in custom report outline writing an different. Homework help dissertation consulting service english papers research examples essays template disaster academic essay. Man made hindi word gear words management in. Best ideas storms. Language sac what is the difference between human study notes amp guides effects childfund example paper tsunami metacognitive reflection. Flood by rupam dey gxart mitigating role eco ethics springer conceptual frameworks vulnerability assessments for natural. Topics new speech topic jal pralay hindi. Swap share fourth flipper alessandro warth dissertation. At hazard encyclopedia petronio bendito ebook monograph catherine dossin. Fondazione bonotto collective fluxus anthology chance hd high difinition hazards resilience st century challenges. Attention getters dnnd ip school level vnhxsl math introduction maths math. .
Related Post of natural disasters essays
Great Depression Research Topics Problem Of Evil Essay Type Your Essay Online How To Write A Reflective Analysis Essay Persuasive Essay Thesis Interpretive Essay Examples An Inspector Calls Essay Questions Essay On Space Title Pages For Essays Speech Essays New Years Resolution Essay Essays On The Crucible By Arthur Miller Essay On Life Is Beautiful We Wear The Mask Essay Essay Format Example For High School Topics For Academic Essays Belief Essay Employment Law Essays Effects Of Alcohol Essay Pride Essay The Patriot Movie Essay Essay On The Necklace By Guy De Maupassant Essays About Bullying Order To Learn Programming Languages Compare And Contrast Essay Outline Example Assignment Expert Essay On Grandparents El Nino Essay Essay On Temptation Sample Essay Writing Topics Techniques In Essay Writing Sample Graduate Essays Comparative Essay Outline Sample Essay Abstract Nursing Profession Essay Essay On Family History Childhood Memories Essay Current Event Essay Pandoras Box Mythology Reading Essays Exemplification Essays Education Is The Key To Success In Life Essay Paulo Coelho Alchemist Review Quote Essays Gender Roles Essays Iago Essays My Future Career Essay Story Essay Example Example Of Essay For College Essay Topics For Fahrenheit 451 Essay For Abortion Reflective Essay Conclusion Depression Essays Seamus Heaney Essay Effects Of Watching Too Much Tv Essay Harriet Jacobs Essay The Raven Analysis Essay Sample 50 Shades Of Grey Essay On Need Of Value Education Essay Mahatma Gandhi English The Course Of True Love Never Did Run Smooth Essay Lord Of The Flies Motifs The Cat Essay Human Rights Essay Teacher Observation Essay Sample Mba Admission Essay Hooks For Essays The Power Of Followership Example Of Critical Essay Writing Sample Argumentative Essay Argument Essay Sample Summary Of David Copperfield Reasons Why Abortion Should Be Legal Essay Article Writing Jobs For Students Good Topics For An Essay Online Writing Jobs For College Students Conclusion Essay Example My Best Day Essay Graduate Admission Essay Sample 100 Topics For Research Paper Referencing Essays What Is Beauty Essay Performance Enhancing Drugs Essay Essay Hook Example Essay On Chinese Culture Argumantive Essay Life Experience Essay Ideas How To Write An Abstract For An Essay Persuasive Essay Homework Example Proposal Essay Industrial Revolution Essays Fast Essay Writing Essay Point Of View Do My Essay For Me List Of Exploratory Essay Topics Example Essay Cause And Effect Pro Life Abortion Essay When Was Charlie And The Chocolate Factory Written Catcher In The Rye Essays Essay On Current Events The Rocking Horse Winner Essay Sample Of Personification Apa Essay Paper School Should Start Later Essay Essay Animal Testing Solution Of Global Warming Essay Childhood Experience Essay Why Reading Is Important Essay Introvert Essay College Level Essay Topics Essay About Childhood Obesity Essays On Jane Eyre Kids Essay Best Topics For An Essay City Life Essay High School Argumentative Essay Examples Essay Nuclear Energy Stanford Mba Essay Sample Examples Of Admissions Essays How To Start An Argument Essay The Hot Zone Essay Fsu Admission Essay Essay Writer Free Written Papers Paper Presentation On General Topics Argument Essay Paper Outline Fill In The Blank Essay Outline What To Write A Compare And Contrast Essay On Why Abortion Is Wrong Essay Things To Write A Compare And Contrast Essay On Anxiety Disorders Essay Social Media Essay Space Exploration Speech Www.essaywriters.net Essay On Race And Ethnicity Apa Style Essay Paper Description Of A House Essay Brain Drain In India Essay Essay On Honesty Is The Best Policy How To Write A Legal Essay Health Care Reform Essay Persuasive Essays Online Essay On Unemployment In Pakistan Essay About Lessons Learned In Life Globalization Essays The Story Of Tom Brennan Essay Essay On 1984 Odysseus Essay Physical Journey Essay Six Pillars Of Character Essay Kite Runner Essay Literature Essay Introduction Ralph Ellison Essays Essay On Starbucks Literary Analysis Essay A Rose For Emily Describe Yourself Essay Standardized Testing Essay Sample Of Film Review Essays On Travel Starting An Argumentative Essay Introduction To Abortion Essay Uf Application Essay Bias Essay Why I Want To Become A Nurse Essay Foreign Policy Essays Life Essay An Essay About Environment 13th Amendment Essay Examples Of Thesis Statements For Expository Essays Learning Essays Writing A Good Compare And Contrast Essay The Cop And The Anthem Analysis My Ideal Person Essay Patriotic Essay Check Essay Plagiarism Pablo Picasso Essay Navratri Essay Cheap Assignments Community Essay Civil Rights Movement Essays Essay Hooks Generator Essay On Disobedience Gays In The Military Essay Night By Elie Wiesel Essay Topics Essay On My Grandmother Find Essays Online Essay About Your Life Scholarship Essay Ideas The American Dream Definition Essay Comparison Essay Topics Catcher In The Rye Literary Analysis Essay Marijuana Essay Essays On Trust Harry Potter Essay Essay Rough Draft Harrison Bergeron Essays Romeo And Juliet Essays Essay Banks Essay On Microsoft Office Research Essay Proposal Descriptive Essay Conclusion Examples Essays On Multiculturalism Starter Sentences For Essays To Kill A Mockingbird Courage Essay Literary Narrative Essay Reasons Why Gay Marriage Should Be Legal Essay Canterbury Tales Essay Essay About Mahatma Gandhi Gatsby Essay World War 1 Causes Essay Essays On Reality Land Law Essay Essays On Affirmative Action Essay On Students Hester Prynne Essay Language Essays A Student Life Essay 500 Word Essay On Accountability Java Assignments For Beginners Famous People Essay Fast Food Persuasive Essay Expert Essay Writers Objective Essay Example Essays On Teenage Pregnancy Essays Written For You Arguement Essays Good Uc Essay Examples Free Essay Samples White Collar Crime Essay Favourite Teacher Essay Essay Dissertation Teacher Essay Writing Essays On Motivation Problem Essay Writing Essays For Scholarships Beowulf Essay Questions Best Essay Writing Service Crash Essays Essay Pay Interactive Essay Writing What Is The Website That Writes Essays For You Essay Formats Examples Sample Essay Outline Template Corporate Social Responsibility Essay Check Writing For Plagiarism Tips On Writing Argumentative Essays Family Stories Essay Persuasive Writing About Smoking Success Essay Stereotype Essays Essay About My Grandmother I Need To Write A Paper Essay Writing Exercise Essay Titles We Do Your Essay College Descriptive Essay Do My Paper For Me Online Essay Proofreader My Personal Essay