For other uses, see Sutlej (disambiguation).
|Sutlej / Satluj|
|सतलुज / ਸਤਲੁਜ / ستلُج|
River Sutlej in Rupnagar, Punjab, India
|Country||China, India, Pakistan|
|States||Tibet,Jammu and Kashmir,Himachal Pradesh,Punjab,Haryana,Rajasthan,Punjab|
|- right||Spiti, Beas|
|- elevation||4,575 m (15,010 ft)|
|- coordinates||30°50′39″N81°12′17″E / 30.84417°N 81.20472°E / 30.84417; 81.20472|
|Mouth||Confluence with Chenab to form the Panjnad River|
|- location||Bahawalpur district, Punjab, Pakistan|
|- elevation||102 m (335 ft)|
|- coordinates||29°23′23″N71°3′42″E / 29.38972°N 71.06167°E / 29.38972; 71.06167Coordinates: 29°23′23″N71°3′42″E / 29.38972°N 71.06167°E / 29.38972; 71.06167|
|Length||1,500 km (932 mi) approx.|
|Basin||395,000 km2 (152,510 sq mi) approx.|
|- average||500 m3/s (17,657 cu ft/s) |
The Sutlej is a tributary to the Indus
The Sutlej River (alternatively spelled as Satluj River) (Hindi: सतलुज, Punjabi: ਸਤਲੁਜ, Sanskrit: शतद्रुम (shatadrum), (Urdu: دریائے ستلُج ), is the longest of the five rivers that flow through the historic crossroads region of Punjab in northern India and Pakistan. The Sutlej River is also known as Satadree. It is the easternmost tributary of the Indus River.
The waters of the Sutlej are allocated to India under the Indus Waters Treaty between India and Pakistan, and are mostly diverted to irrigation canals in India. There are several major hydroelectric projects on the Sutlej, including the 1,000 MWBhakra Dam, the 1,000 MW Karcham Wangtoo Hydroelectric Plant, and the 1,530 MW Nathpa Jhakri Dam. The river basin area in India is located in Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Jammu and Kashmir, Rajasthan and Haryana states.
The Upper Sutlej Valley, called Langqên Zangbo in Tibet, was once known as the Garuda Valley by the Zhangzhung, the ancient civilization of western Tibet. The Garuda Valley was the centre of their empire, which stretched many miles into the nearby Himalayas. The Zhangzhung built a towering palace in the Upper Sutlej Valley called Kyunglung, the ruins of which still exist today near the village of Moincêr, southwest of Mount Kailash (Mount Ti-se). Eventually, the Zhangzhung were conquered by the Tibetan Empire.
The boundaries of Greater Nepal extended westward to beyond Satluj River until the tide turned in 1809 and Kangra king repulsed Gorkha army eastward with help from Maharaja Ranjit Singh.
Today, the Sutlej Valley is inhabited by nomadic descendants of the Zhangzhung, who live in tiny villages of yak herders.
The Sutlej was the main medium of transportation for the kings of that time. In the early 18th century, it was used to transport devdar woods for Bilaspur district, Hamirpur district, and other places along the Sutlej's banks.
Of four rivers (Indus, Sutlej, Brahmaputra and Karnali/Ganges) mythically flowing out of holy Lake Manasarovar, the Sutlej is actually connected by channels that are dry most of the time.
The source of the Sutlej is west of Lake Rakshastal in Tibet, as springs in an ephemeral stream channel descending from this lake. Rakshastal in turn is ephemerally connected by Ganga Chhu to sacred Lake Manasarovar about 4 km further east. The nascent river flows at first west-northwest for about 260 kilometres (160 mi) under the Tibetan name Langqên Zangbo (Elephant River or Elephant Spring) to the Shipki La pass, entering India in Himachal Pradesh state. It then turns slightly, heading west-southwest for about 360 kilometres (220 mi) to meet the Beas River near Makhu, Firozpur district, Punjab state. Ropar Wetland in Punjab state is located on the Sutlej river basin, evidence suggest Indus Valley Civilisation also flourished here.[better source needed] Ungti Chu and Pare Chu rivers which drain south eastern part of Jammu and Kashmir state are tributaries of Sutlej river.
Continuing west-southwest, the Sutlej enters Pakistan about 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) east of Bhedian Kalan, Kasur District, Punjab province, continuing southwest to water the ancient and historical former Bahawalpur princely state.
About 17 kilometres (11 mi) north of Uch Sharif, the Sutlej unites with the Chenab River, forming the Panjnad River, which finally flows into the Indus river about 100 kilometres (62 mi) west of the city of Bahawalpur. The area to the southeast on the Pakistani side of the Indian border is called the Cholistan Desert and, on the Indian side, the Thar Desert.
The Indus then flows through a gorge near Sukkur and the fertile plains region of Sindh, forming a large delta region between the border of Gujarat, India and Pakistan, finally terminating in the Arabian Sea near the port city of Karachi, Pakistan. During floods, Indus river water flows in to Indian part of Great Rann of Kutch. Thus Gujarat state of India is also a riparian state of Indus river as Rann of Kutch area lying west of Kori Creek in the state is part of the Indus River Delta.
See also: Ghaggar-Hakra River
The Sutlej, along with all of the Punjab rivers, is thought to have drained east into the Ganges prior to 5 mya.
There is substantial geologic evidence to indicate that prior to 1700 BC, and perhaps much earlier, the Sutlej was an important tributary of the Ghaggar-Hakra River (thought to be the legendary Sarasvati River) rather than the Indus, with various authors putting the redirection from 2500 to 2000 BC, from 5000 to 3000 BC, or before 8000 BC. Geologists believe that tectonic activity created elevation changes which redirected the flow of Sutlej from the southeast to the southwest. If the diversion of the river occurred recently (about 4000 years ago), it may have been responsible for the Ghaggar-Hakra (Saraswati) drying up, causing desertification of Cholistan and the eastern part of the modern state of Sindh, and the abandonment of Harappan settlements along the Ghaggar. However, the Sutlej may have already been captured by the Indus thousands of years earlier.
There is some evidence that the high rate of erosion caused by the modern Sutlej River has influenced the local faulting and rapidly exhumed rocks above Rampur. This would be similar to, but on a much smaller scale than, the exhumation of rocks by the Indus River in Nanga Parbat, Pakistan. The Sutlej River also exposes a doubled inverted metamorphic gradient.
Main article: Sutlej Yamuna link canal
There has been a proposal to build a 214-kilometre (133 mi) long heavy freight and irrigation canal, to be known as the Sutlej-Yamuna Link (SYL) to connect the Sutlej and Yamuna rivers. The project is intended to connect the Ganges, which flows to the east coast of the subcontinent, with points west, via Pakistan. When completed, the SYL would enable inland shipping from India's east coast to its west coast (on the Arabian sea) without having to round the southern tip of India by sea, vastly shortening shipping distances, alleviating pressures on seaports, avoiding sea hazards, creating business opportunities along the route, raising real estate values, raising tax revenue, and establishing important commercial links and providing jobs for north-central India's large population. However, the proposal has met with obstacles and has been referred to the Supreme Court of India. To augment nearly 100 tmcft water availability for the needs of this link canal, Tso Moriri lake/Lingdi Nadi (a tributary of Tso Moriri lake) waters can be diverted to the Sutlej basin by digging a 10 km long gravity canal to connect to the Ungti Chu river.
Sutlej Valley from Rampur c. 1857
Using inflated animal skins to cross the Sutlej River, c. 1905
Sutlej River in Kinnaur Valley, Himachal Pradesh, India
Cattle grazing on the banks of the river in Rupnagar, Punjab, India
Satluj River near Shahkot, Punjab India
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- ^Asiatic Society of Bengal. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Volume 17, Part 1. p. 210, paragraph two.
- ^Archived 31 August 2005 at the Wayback Machine.
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- ^"Lower Sutlej basin area"(PDF). Retrieved 14 May 2017.
- ^ abc"WRIS geo-visualization map". Retrieved 17 January 2017.
- ^"Upper Sutlej basin area"(PDF). Retrieved 14 May 2017.
- ^"Evolution of the Delta, the LBOD outfall system and the Badin dhands - chapters 3 & 4"(PDF). Retrieved 22 December 2015.
- ^Clift, Peter D.; Blusztajn, Jerzy (15 December 2005). "Reorganization of the western Himalayan river system after five million years ago". Nature. 438 (7070): 1001–1003. doi:10.1038/nature04379. PMID 16355221.
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- ^*Clift et al. 2012. "U-Pb zircon dating evidence for a Pleistocene Sarasvati River and capture of the Yamuna River." Geology, v. 40. 
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- ^Thiede, Rasmus; Arrowsmith, J. Ramón; Bookhagen, Bodo; McWilliams, Michael O.; Sobel, Edward R.; Strecker, Manfred R. (August 2005). "From tectonically to erosionally controlled development of the Himalayan orogen". Geology. 33 (8): 689–692. doi:10.1130/G21483AR.1.
- ^Grasemann, Bernhard; Fritz, Harry; Vannay, Jean-Claude (July 1999). "Quantitative kinematic flow analysis from the Main Central Thrust Zone)NW-Himalaya, India: implications for a decelerating strain path and the extrustion of orogenic wedges". Journal of Structural Geology. 21 (7): 837–853. doi:10.1016/S0191-8141(99)00077-2.
- ^http://india.gov.in/sectors/water_resources/sutlej_link.php Sutlej-Yamuna Link
- ^"Harnessing gigantic hydro power potential of Indus, Jhelum and Chenab rivers by diverting water to Ravi and Sutlej rivers in India". Retrieved 13 January 2017.
A new Indian government survey has revealed that the Taj Mahal, the nation's best-known monument, is again facing a major threat from pollution.
The report, compiled by India's National Environment Engineering Research Institute, shows that measures taken after previous scares that the 17th-century tomb was being irreparably damaged by air and water pollution are failing.
The survey, commissioned by the Ministry of Environment, found that pollution levels in the city of Agra, where the Taj Mahal is located, had risen significantly over recent years as a result of growth in industry, traffic and population.
The £90m government programme, launched between 1998 and 2000 after the monument's famous white marble was seen to be turning yellow, has had some impact, the report says, but not enough to keep up with pollution around the site.
When launched, the programme received global attention, with President Bill Clinton saying that pollution had done "what 350 years of wars, invasions and natural disasters have failed to do [and] begun to mar the magnificent walls of the Taj Mahal".
Vehicles are now banned from within 500 metres of the monument and an LED display gives a running count of air pollution.
But the new report found that emissions of nitrogen oxide and particulates, for example, had reached levels higher than those that prompted a supreme court intervention to force authorities to act a decade ago.
Environmental campaigners in Agra, a bustling manufacturing centre in the populous and poor northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, said that the Taj Mahal was also threatened by dropping water tables and pollution from the river Yamuna, which runs alongside the structure. "The levels are much lower than they were when it was built and there is a serious risk that the whole construction will be destabilised as its foundations are made of wood and need to be kept moist to avoid subsiding," said Ashwina Kumar Mishra, a local activist.
"It is the most beautiful place in India and it will be a tragedy if something bad happens to it."
Government archeologists working at the Taj Mahal dismissed the claims of activists as "rumours". "These stories keep coming up without facts," said ID Diwedi, a senior archeologist at the site.
However, the report confirmed that an increasing demand for water in Agra had meant a drop in the underground water level by four metres over recent years. The water is heavily polluted due to the continuing discharge of effluents from industry and to rubbish clogging drains around the monument, it said.
The effects of the pollution have led to repeated attempts to use a clay pack treatment to maintain the shimmering, pristine appearance of the marble. The report added that measures such as a natural gas pipeline laid to supply clean fuel to industries in Agra, street-widening projects, the construction of a bypass, the replacement of diesel-run rickshaws by cleaner vehicles, heavy investment in a refinery to reduce emissions and an improved power supply that has meant less reliance on dirty diesel generators have had a positive impact, but could only mitigate the threat.
Agra lies downstream of Delhi, and water from the Yamuna river reaches the city heavily contaminated by chemical and human waste. A recent £30m effort to clean the Yamuna has largely failed. In Agra, untreated sewage and solid waste is discharged directly into the river, the report said, while an upstream barrage has dramatically reduced its flow.
Each year hundreds of thousands of foreigners pay around £10 each to view the Taj Mahal, built by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan as a mausoleum for his third wife, Mumtaz Mahal, who died having the couple's 14th child.
President Nicolas Sarkozy of France and his wife, Carla Bruni-Sarkozy, are due to visit next week.
DK Joshi, a member of a court-appointed committee created to monitor environmental threats to the Taj Mahal, told the Guardian that "collusion between a land mafia and dishonest bureaucrats" had meant the misuse of much of the money designated to protect the site and its surroundings.
"I am just a simple man. I just want to see my country and my city and my monuments neat and clean," Joshi said.