Charles 1 Civil War Essay Outline

  • Korean War a Proxy War?
  • Red Scare, KKK, Civil War Brought Fear to America
  • History of The American Civil War
  • The Reconstruction of America after the Civil War
  • A Look at the Westward Expansion in the Post-Civil War Era
  • Causes and Effects of the Civil War
  • The African-American Civil Rights Movement
  • Civil Disorder
  • Weapons of the American Civil War
  • Overview of American History Since Civil War
  • Scenario Involving Civil Liability and Civil Action
  • The Civil War
  • Why the Union Won the Civil War?
  • Roles of Important Women During the Civil War
  • Battles and Women That Effected the Civil War
  • African Americans in the Civil War
  • Civil War
  • Walt Whitman and the Civil War
  • History of Civil Rights in America
  • Nursing and Medicine of the Civil War
  • Civil Disobedience: Cost of Change
  • Women During the Civil War
  • The American Civil War and Its Inevitability
  • Many Years of Civil War in Cambodia
  • Comparison of Civil Disobedience
  • Civil Engineer
  • Georgia in the Civil Rights Movement
  • Dorothea Dix’s Effects on Asylum Reform, the Civil War, and Adolescent Minds
  • James Longstreet Is a Book About a Striking Man Who Played a Big Role in the Civil War, by Melanie LeTourneau
  • Weapons and Defense Systems of the American Civil War
  • The Long Struggle for Civil Rights
  • Political Parties, Sectionalism and the Civil War
  • Events Leading To The Civil War
  • Cause of the American Civil War
  • Women of the American Civil War: South and North
  • The Inevitable American Civil War
  • The Civil war
  • Advancements in Med-Care since the Civil War
  • The Civil War
  • Who Won the Civil War
  • The Outbreak of the Spanish Civil War
  • Causes of the American Civil War
  • The American Civil War: Abraham Lincoln
  • American Reconstruction after the Civil War
  • The Civil Rights Movement
  • The American Civil War Was Inevitable
  • Dramatic Photographs of the Civil War: Hanging at Washington Arsenal
  • The Causes Of The Civil War
  • Reconstruction Policy after the Civil War
  • Causes of the American Civil War
  • American History: The Vietnam War and the Civil Rights Movement
  • Oliver P. Morton: True Leadership in the Civil War
  • The Spanish Civil War: A Microcosm of the Polarization of European Politics
  • The Road to Civil War
  • Difficult Life On and Off the Battle Fields of the Civil War
  • A Soldier's Life in the Civil War
  • Farewell to Civil Peace for the Ukraine
  • The Baptist Church and Slavery Prior to the Civil War
  • The Civil Rights Movement and World War II
  • The American Civil War: Interpretations of Democracy
  • Abraham Lincoln: Civil War
  • Stephen Crane and The Civil War
  • The Civil War and Gone with the Wind
  • Ships during the American Civil War
  • Changes in Farming Post Civil War
  • Beginning of a Conflict after the Civil War
  • Little America: The War Within the War for Afghanistan
  • Transformative Power of Civil Society
  • Why the American Civil War Lasted for Longer Than 90 Days
  • The Civil War
  • The Major Causes of the Civil War
  • American Civil War and Religion
  • New York City Before, During, and After the Civil War
  • The Black Civil Rights Movement
  • Bush's War On Terror and the Erosion of Civil Liberties
  • The Political Ethos of the Civil Society
  • The Causes of the Civil War: Different Economies and Societies
  • Civil Liberties and Civil Rights
  • My Own Reconstruction Plan after the Civil War
  • blacks in civil war
  • The Manipulation of the Public by a Small Group of Southern Fanatics as the Cause of the Civil War
  • The Causes of the Civil War
  • The Civil Rights Movement
  • The Civil War
  • Sudan: Social Inequality, the Fight for NaturalResources, Civil War
  • The Civil Rights Movement
  • The Primary Goal of Reconstruction after the Civil War
  • Why the Bolsheviks Won the Civil War
  • Civil Liberties, Habeas Corpus, and the War on Terror
  • Women and Their Role in the Civil War
  • African Americans in the American Civil War
  • Was the American Civil War fought to free the Slaves
  • Dbq, Civil Rights Essay

 

Charles I                         Oliver Cromwell

The English Civil War has many causes but the personality of Charles I must be counted as one of the major reasons.Few people could have predicted that the civil war, that started in 1642, would have ended with the public execution of  Charles. His most famous opponent in this war was Oliver Cromwell  – one of the men who signed the death warrant of Charles.

No king had ever been executed in England and the execution of Charles was not greeted with joy. How did the English Civil War break out?

As with many wars, there are long and short term causes.

Long term causes:

The status of the monarchy had started to decline under the reign of James I. He was known as the “wisest fool in Christendom”. James was a firm believer in the “divine right of kings”. This was a belief that God had made someone a king and as God could not be wrong, neither could anyone appointed by him to rule a nation. James expected Parliament to do as he wanted; he did not expect it to argue with any of his decisions.

However, Parliament had one major advantage over James – they had money and he was continually short of it. Parliament and James clashed over custom duties. This was one source of James income but Parliament told him that he could not collect it without their permission. In 1611, James suspended Parliament and it did not meet for another 10 years. James used his friends to run the country and they were rewarded with titles. This caused great offence to those Members of Parliament who believed that they had the right to run the country.

In 1621, James re-called Parliament to discuss the future marriage of his son, Charles, to a Spanish princess. Parliament was outraged. If such a marriage occurred, would the children from it be brought up as Catholics? Spain was still not considered a friendly nation to England and many still remembered 1588 and the Spanish Armada. The marriage never took place but the damaged relationship between king and Parliament was never mended by the time James died in 1625. 

Short term causes:

Charles had a very different personality compared to James. Charles was arrogant, conceited and a strong believer in the divine rights of kings. He had witnessed the damaged relationship between his father and Parliament, and considered that Parliament was entirely at fault. He found it difficult to believe that a king could be wrong. His conceit and arrogance were eventually to lead to his execution.

From 1625 to 1629, Charles argued with parliament over most issues, but money and religion were the most common causes of arguments. 

In 1629, Charles copied his father. He refused to let Parliament meet. Members of Parliament arrived at Westminster to find that the doors had been locked with large chains and padlocks. They were locked out for eleven years – a period they called the Eleven Years Tyranny.

Charles ruled by using the Court of Star Chamber. To raise money for the king, the Court heavily fined those brought before it. Rich men were persuaded to buy titles. If they refused to do so, they were fined the same sum of money it would have cost for a title anyway! 

In 1635 Charles ordered that everyone in the country should pay Ship Money. This was historically a tax paid by coastal towns and villages to pay for the upkeep of the navy. The logic was that coastal areas most benefited from the navy’s protection. Charles decided that everyone in the kingdom benefited from the navy’s protection and that everyone should pay. 

In one sense, Charles was correct, but such was the relationship between him and the powerful men of the kingdom, that this issue caused a huge argument between both sides. One of the more powerful men in the nation was John Hampden. He had been a Member of Parliament. He refused to pay the new tax as Parliament had not agreed to it. At this time Parliament was also not sitting as Charles had locked the MP’s out. Hampden was put on trial and found guilty. However, he had become a hero for standing up to the king. There is no record of any Ship Money being extensively collected in the areas Charles had wanted it extended to.

Charles also clashed with the Scots. He ordered that they should use a new prayer book for their church services. This angered the Scots so much that they invaded England in 1639. As Charles was short of money to fight the Scots, he had to recall Parliament in 1640 as only they had the necessary money needed to fight a war and the required authority to collect extra money.

In return for the money and as a display of their power, Parliament called for the execution of  “Black Tom Tyrant” – the Earl of Strafford, one of the top advisors of Charles. After a trial, Strafford was executed in 1641. Parliament also demanded that Charles get rid of the Court of Star Chamber.

By 1642, relations between Parliament and Charles had become very bad. Charles had to do as Parliament wished as they had the ability to raise the money that Charles needed. However, as a firm believer in the “divine right of kings”, such a relationship was unacceptable to Charles.

In 1642, he went to Parliament with 300 soldiers to arrest his five biggest critics. Someone close to the king had already tipped off Parliament that these men were about to be arrested and they had already fled to the safety of the city of London where they could easily hide from the king. However, Charles had shown his true side. Members of Parliament represented the people. Here was Charles attempting to arrest five Members of Parliament simply because they dared to criticise him. If Charles was prepared to arrest five Members of Parliament, how many others were not safe? Even Charles realised that things had broken down between him and Parliament. Only six days after trying to arrest the five Members of Parliament, Charles left London to head for Oxford to raise an army to fight Parliament for control of England. A civil war could not be avoided. 

Comments

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *