Virginia Abernethy (born 1934) is a Cuban-born American academic. She is professor emerita of psychiatry and anthropology at Vanderbilt University School of Medicine. She has published research on population demography and immigration. She ran for Vice President of the United States in 2012 alongside Merlin Miller for the American Freedom Party, a party that promotes white supremacy.
In 2012, the Anti-Defamation League referred to Abernathy as an "unabashed white supremacist", and the Southern Poverty Law Center called her a "full-fledged professor of hate," adding her to a list of 30 new activists heading the radical right. Abernethy denied that she was a "white supremacist," preferring to describe herself as an "ethnic separatist."
Virginia Deane Abernethy was born in 1934 in Cuba. She grew up in Argentina and New York City. She was educated at Riverdale Country School in New York City. She received a B.A. from Wellesley College, an M.B.A. from Vanderbilt University, and Ph.D. from Harvard University.
She was Professor of Psychiatry and Anthropology at Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee for 20 years. She retired in the 1990s, and still retains an office on campus as Professor Emerita. She is an anthropology fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
She describes herself as an "ethnic separatist". An outspoken opponent of immigration, she has called for a complete moratorium on immigration into the United States. She claims that immigrants devalue the workforce, deplete scarce resources, adversely impact carrying capacity, and that Third World immigration has led to a rise in dangerous diseases within the United States. She has countered claims of racism against her by pointing to her friendship with Jesse Lee Peterson.
Her research has focused on the issues of population and culture. Her most famous work discounts the demographic transition theory, which holds that fertility drops as women become more educated and contraceptives become more available. In its place she has developed a fertility-opportunity hypothesis which states that fertility follows perceived economic opportunity. A corollary to this hypothesis is that food aid to developing nations will only exacerbate overpopulation. She has advocated in favor of microloans to women in the place of international aid, because she believes microloans allow improvement in the lives of families without leading to higher fertility.
She has opposed programs that would spur economic development in less developed countries on the grounds that they are self-defeating. In the December 1994 issue of The Atlantic Monthly she authored an article entitled "Optimism and Overpopulation" in which she argued that "efforts to alleviate poverty often spur population growth, as does leaving open the door to immigration. Subsidies, windfalls, and the prospect of economic opportunity remove the immediacy of needing to conserve. The mantras of democracy, redistribution, and economic development raise expectations and fertility rates, fostering population growth and thereby steepening a downward environmental and economic spiral."
She has written or edited several books, including: Population Politics: The Choices that Shape our Future (1993) and Population Pressure and Cultural Adjustment (1979). Abernethy has written articles that have appeared in Chronicles,The Social Contract Press, The Atlantic Monthly, and numerous academic journals. She has also made occasional contributions to the weblog VDARE.
She served 1989-1999 as the editor of the academic journal Population and Environment. She also served on the editorial board of The Citizen Informer, the newsletter of the Council of Conservative Citizens (CofCC), a neo-Confederate organization. She has also appeared as a guest on the CofCC-affiliated radio show, The Political Cesspool. Abernethy regularly addresses meetings of the CofCC. She is on the editorial advisory board of The Occidental Quarterly, a white nationalist scholarly journal. She serves on the Board of Directors of the Carrying Capacity Network, an immigration-reduction and sustainability organization, and also on the Board of Population-Environment BALANCE, which advocates an immigration moratorium in order to balance population size with resources and the environment's capacity to cope with pollution.
On June 29, 2011, the American Third Position party announced that she had joined their Board of Directors. She was later nominated as their Vice Presidential nominee.
Protect Arizona Now
She was involved in Arizona's Proposition 200 campaign. She was Chair of the National Advisory Board of the Protect Arizona Now (PAN) committee which promoted Proposition 200 in that state's 2004 election. (Proposition 200, which passed November 2, further limits access to voting and government benefits by anyone without documentation.)
During the campaign, she replied to a journalist's question about her views by stating that she considers herself a separatist, not a supremacist: "I'm in favor of separatism—and that's different than supremacy. Groups tend to self-segregate. I know that I'm not a supremacist. I know that ethnic groups are more comfortable with their own kind."
In a letter to The Washington Times printed September 30, 2004, she rebutted their reporting of her as a "self-described 'racial separatist'", indicating that she is an ethnic separatist instead. She went on to note that the nation has abandoned the motto, "e pluribus unum."
Abernethy ran in election for vice president of the United States in 2012. She was the running mate of Merlin Miller, who ran for President, in the 2012 U.S. Presidential election, for the American Freedom Party. According to an AmericanFreedomUnion.com posting, they were on the ballot in Colorado, New Jersey, and Tennessee.
Abernethy is a critic of Wikipedia, stemming from her failed attempts to add opinions to her own article on the online encyclopedia.
- ^"Ron Paul campaign denies white supremacist ties alleged by Anonymous". Yahoo! News. 2012-02-03. Retrieved 2012-02-18.
- ^Alison Knezevich (2011-06-15). "Labor changing mind on Tomblin?". The Charleston Gazette. Archived from the original on 2013-01-05.
- ^Sanya Khetani (2012-02-01). "Anonymous Has Revealed The British National Party's Links To An American White Supremacist Group". Business Insider. Archived from the original on 2012-07-01. Retrieved 2012-02-18.
- ^Wadhwani, Anita (October 22, 2012). "Hate watch list includes retired Vanderbilt professor". USA Today. Retrieved 19 February 2014.
- ^ abcdef"About Virginia", Dr. Abernethy's home page, retrieved Oct 19, 2009.
- ^ abcdefghAnita Wadhwani, Hate watch list includes retired Vanderbilt professor, USA Today, October 22, 2012
- ^TOQ-Virginia Deane Abernethy - TB and immigration-Vol 2 No 3
- ^"The Minister of Minstrelsy". The Nation. Retrieved November 4, 2009.
- ^Abernethy, Virginia (January 1993). Population Politics: The Choices that Shape Our Future. Insight Books. ISBN 9780306444616.
- ^"Virginia Abernethy". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved 2018-01-18.
- ^Dr. Virginia Abernethy joins American Third Position Board of Directors | American Third Position
- ^Racist Prof Latest to Join Group That Seeks White Rule in America | Hatewatch | Southern Poverty Law Center
- ^Migrant foe tied to racism | Arizona local news - Mesa, Scottsdale, Gilbert, Tempe, Chandler | Eastvalleytribune.com
- ^"Dr. Virginia Abernethy". The Occidental Observer. Retrieved 2018-02-16.
- ^american-eagle-party-ready-to-soar/Archived 2016-01-30 at the Wayback Machine.
- ^Abernethy, Virginia (July 30, 2007). "As Others View Us: Wikepedia entry for Virginia Abernethy". virginiaabernethy.com. Retrieved November 8, 2015.
1. Hamilton WD (1964) The genetical evolution of social behaviour I. Journal of Theoretical Biology. 7: 1–16 [PubMed]
2. Cockburn A (1998) Evolution of helping behavior in cooperatively breeding birds. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics29: 141–177
3. Clutton-Brock T (2002) Breeding together: Kin selection and mutualism in cooperative vertebrates. Science296: 69–72 [PubMed]
4. Hrdy SB (2006) Evolutionary context of human development: the cooperative breeding model. In: Carter CS, Ahnert L, Grossman KE, Hrdy SB, Lamb ME, editors. Attachment and Bonding: A New Synthesis. Harvard: MIT Press.
5. Sear R, Mace R (2008) Who keeps children alive? A review of the effects of kin on child survival. Evolution & Human Behavior29: 1–18
6. Mace R, Sear R (2005) Are humans cooperative breeders? In: Voland E, Chasiotis A, Schiefenhoevel W, editors. Grandmotherhood: the Evolutionary Significance of the Second Half of Female Life. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press. pp. 143–159.
7. Sear R, Coall D (2011) How Much Does Family Matter? Cooperative Breeding and the Demographic Transition. Population and Development Review37: 81–112 [PubMed]
8. Strassmann BI (2011) Cooperation and competition in a cliff-dwelling people. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences108: 10894–10901 [PMC free article][PubMed]
9. Borgerhoff Mulder M (1998) The demographic transition: are we any closer to an evolutionary explanation? Trends in Ecology & Evolution13: 266–270 [PubMed]
10. Turke PW (1989) Evolution and the demand for children. Population and Development Review15: 61–90
11. Newson L, Postmes T, Lea SEG, Webley P (2005) Why are modern families small? Toward an evolutionary and cultural explanation for the demographic transition. Personality and Social Psychology Review9: 360–375 [PubMed]
12. Del Boca D (2002) The effect of child care and part time opportunities on participation and fertility decisions in Italy. Journal of Population Economics15: 549–573
13. Kaptijn R, Thomese F, van Tilburg T, Liefbroer A (2010) How Grandparents Matter: Support for the Cooperative Breeding Hypothesis in a Contemporary Dutch Population. Human Nature21: 393–405 [PMC free article][PubMed]
14. Waynforth D (2011) Grandparental investment and reproductive decisions in the longitudinal 1970 British cohort study. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. [PMC free article][PubMed]
15. Lehrer EL, Kawasaki S (1985) Child Care Arrangements and Fertility: An Analysis of Two-Earner Households. Demography22: 499–513 [PubMed]
16. Hank K, Kreyenfeld M (2003) A Multilevel Analysis of Child Care and Women's Fertility Decisions in Western Germany. Journal of Marriage and Family65: 584–596
17. Mathews P, Sear R (2012) Does the Kin Orientation of a British Female's Social Network influence her Entry into Motherhood? Demographic Research In Press.
18. Rendall M, Smallwood S (2003) Higher Qualifications, First Birth Timing, and Further Childbearing in England and Wales. Population Trends111: 18–26 [PubMed]
19. Iacovou M, Tavares LP (2011) Yearning, Learning, and Conceding: Reasons Men and Women Change Their Childbearing Intentions. Population and Development Review37: 89–123 [PubMed]
20. Hill K, Hurtado AM (1996) Ache Life History: The Ecology and Demography of a Foraging People. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.
21. Hawkes K, O'Connell JF, Blurton Jones NG (1997) Hadza women's time allocation, offspring provisioning and the evolution of long postmenopausal life spans. Current Anthropology38: 551–578
22. Kramer KL (2005) Children's help and the pace of reproduction: cooperative breeding in humans. Evolutionary Anthropology14: 224–237
23. Gutman D (1988) Reclaimed powers: towards a new psychology of men and women in later life. London: Hutchinson.
24. Hrdy S (2009) Mothers and Others: The Evolutionary Origins of Mutual Understanding: Harvard University Press.
25. Attias-Donfut C, Ogg J, Wolff F-C (2005) European patterns of intergenerational financial and time transfers. European Journal of Ageing2: 161–173
26. Hawkes D, Joshi H (2007) The Grandparents: What is their role in the family? In: Hansen K, Joshi H, editors. Millennium Cohort Study Second Survey A User's Guide to Initial Findings: Centre for Longitudinal Studies Bedford Group for Lifecourse & Statistical Studies Institute of Education, University of London.
27. Tan J-P, Buchanan A, Flouri E, Attar-Schwartz S, Griggs J (2010) Filling the Parenting Gap? Grandparent Involvement With U.K. Adolescents. Journal of Family Issues31: 992–1015
28. Clarke L, Roberts C (2003) Grandparenthood: its meaning and its contribution to older people's lives. Sheffield: Economic and Social Research Council.
29. Hills J (2007) Ends and means: the future roles of social housing in England. London, UK: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science.
30. Fergusson E, Maughan B, Golding J (2008) Which children receive grandparental care and what effect does it have? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry49: 161–169 [PubMed]
31. Grundy E, Murphy M, Shelton N (1999) Looking beyond the household: intergenerational perspectives on living kin and contacts with kin in Great Britain. Population Trends97: 19–27 [PubMed]
32. Wheelock J, Jones K (2002) ‘Grandparents Are the Next Best Thing’: Informal Childcare for Working Parents in Urban Britain. Journal of Social Policy31: 441–463
33. Gray A (2005) The Changing Availability of Grandparents as Carers and its Implications for Childcare Policy in the UK. Journal of Social Policy34: 557–577
34. Jones EM (2008) Childcare. In: Hansen K, Joshi H, editors. Millennium Cohort Study Third Survey: A User's Guide to Initial Findings: Centre for Longitudinal Studies, Institute of Education, University of London. pp. 76–87.
35. Hansen K, Hawkes D (2009) Early Childcare and Child Development. Journal of Social Policy38: 211–239
36. Hank K, Buber I (2009) Grandparents Caring for their Grandchildren: Findings From the 2004 Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe. Journal of Family Issues30: 53–73
37. Jappens M, Van Bavel J (2012) Regional family cultures and child care by grandparents in Europe. Demographic Research27: 85–120
38. Igel C, Szydlik M (2011) Grandchild care and welfare state arrangements in Europe. Journal of European Social Policy21: 210–224
39. Vandell DL, McCartney K, Owen MT, Booth C, Clarke-Stewart A (2003) Variations in Child Care by Grandparents During the First Three Years. Journal of Marriage and Family65: 375–381
40. Newson L, Postmes T, Lea SEG, Webley P, Richerson PJ, et al. (2007) Influences on communication about reproduction: the cultural evolution of low fertility. Evolution and Human Behavior28: 199–210
41. Keim S, Klarner A, Bernardi L (2009) Qualifying Social Influence on Fertility Intentions: Composition, Structure and Meaning of Fertility-relevant Social Networks in Western Germany. Current Sociology57: 888–907
42. Axinn WG, Clarkberg ME, Arland T (1994) Family Influences on Family Size Preferences. Demography31: 65–79 [PubMed]
43. Murphy M (2008) Variations in Kinship Networks Across Geographic and Social Space. Population and Development Review34: 19–49
44. Grundy E, Murphy M (2006) Kin Availability, Contact and Support Exchanges Between Adult Children and their Parents in Great Britain. In: Ebtehaj F, Lindley B, Richards M, editors. Kinship Matters. Oxford: Hart Publishing. pp. 195–215.
45. Nolan J, Scott J (2006) Gender and Kinship in Contemporary Britain. In: Ebtehaj F, Lindley B, Richards M, editors. Kinship Matters. Oxford: Hart Publishing. pp. 175–194.
46. Owen C, Mooney A, Brannen J, Statham J (2004) Wider Family. In: Dex S, Joshi H, editors. Millennium Cohort Study First Survey: A User's Guide to Initial Findings: Centre for Longitudinal Studies Bedford Group for Lifecourse & Statistical Studies Institute of Education, University of London. pp. 51–74.
47. Nettle D (2010) Dying young and living fast: variation in life history across English neighborhoods. Behavioral Ecology21: 387–395
48. Greene ME, Biddlecom AE (2000) Absent and problematic men: Demographic accounts of male reproductive roles. Population and Development Review26: 81–115
49. Allison PD (1984) Event History Analysis: regression for longitudinal event data. Newbury Park: Sage Publications.
50. Box-Steffensmeier JM, Jones BS (2004) Event history modeling: a guide for social scientists. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
51. Newman JL (1983) Economic Analyses of the Spacing of Births. The American Economic Review73: 33–37
52. Pahl R, Pevalin DJ (2005) Between family and friends: a longitudinal study of friendship choice. British Journal of Sociology56: 433–451 [PubMed]
53. Engelhardt H, Prskawetz A (2004) On the Changing Correlation Between Fertility and Female Employment over Space and Time. European Journal of Population/Revue européenne de Démographie20: 35–62
54. Becker GS (1991) A Treatise on the Family. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
55. Bell A, Bryson C, Barnes M, O'Shea R (2005) Use of Childcare Among Families from Minority Ethnic Backgrounds. London: The National Centre for Social Research.
56. McQuillan K (2004) When Does Religion Influence Fertility? Population and Development Review30: 25–56
57. Coleman DA, Dubuc S (2010) The fertility of ethnic minorities in the UK, 1960–2006. Population Studies: A Journal of Demography64: 19–41 [PubMed]
58. Lundberg S (2005) Sons, Daughters, and Parental Behaviour. Oxford Review of Economic Policy21: 340–356
59. Murphy M (1999) Is the relationship between fertility of parents and children really weak? Social Biology46: 122–145 [PubMed]
60. Bateson P, Barker D, Clutton-Brock T, Deb D, D'Udine B, et al. (2004) Developmental plasticity and human health. 430: 419–421 [PubMed]
61. Burgless RL (2005) Evolutionary Theory and Human Development. In: Burgess RL, MacDonald K, editors. Evolutionary Perspectives on Human Development. London: Sage.
62. Nettle D (2006) The Evolution of Personality Variation in Humans and Other Animals. American Psychologist61: 622–631 [PubMed]
63. Costa P, McCrae R (1992) Four ways five factors are basic. Personality and Individual Differences13: 653–665
64. Maynard Smith J (1978) Optimization theory in evolution. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics9: 31–56
65. Asendorpf J, Wilpers S (1998) Personality Effects on Social Relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology74: 1531–1544
66. Alvergne A, Jokela M, Lummaa V (2010) Personality and reproductive success in a high-fertility human population. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. [PMC free article][PubMed]
67. Tavares L (2010) Who delays childbearing? The relationships between fertility, education and personality traits. ISER working paper series.
68. Jokela M, Kivimäki M, Elovainio M, Keltikangas-Järvinen L (2009) Personality and Having Children: A Two-Way Relationship. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology96: 218–230 [PubMed]
69. Caspi A, Roberts BW (1999) Personality continuity and change across the life course. In: Pervin LA, John, Oliver P, editor. Handbook of personality: theory and research. New York: Guilford Press.
70. Lang FR, Reschke FS, Neyer F, J. (2006) Social relationships, transitions and personality development across the life span. In: Mroczek DK, Little TD, editors. Handbook of personality development. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.
71. Srivastava S, John OP, Gosling SD, Potter J (2003) Development of Personality in Early and Middle Adulthood: Set Like Plaster or Persistent Change? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology84: 1041–1053 [PubMed]
72. Shiner RL (2006) Temperament and Personality in Childhood. In: Mroczek DK, Little TD, editors. Handbook of personality development. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.
73. Davis K, Blake J (1956) Social Structure and Fertility: An Analytic Framework. Economic Development and Cultural Change4: 211–235
74. Young M, Wilmott P (1957) Family and Kinship in East London. London: Penguin.