We understand that most students will be studying in at least two Schools, who may have very different and sometimes contradictory expectations in relation to essay submission and essay styles. It is important, then, that you familiarise yourself with the School of History's house style. Information on how to compile your footnotes and your bibliography can be found by consulting the following the History Referencing Style Guide
You will usually be asked to submit two copies of your essay - hard paper copy and an electronic copy. For the paper copy you must download the History Essay Cover Sheet and attach it to your essay when it is submitted. Fill in all the required information, including the name of your tutor or module coordinator (as appropriate). If you are unsure check the list of academic staff and of non-staff tutors. This makes the grading process faster and avoids essays getting misplaced. The electronic copy should be submitted via Blackboard. If you run into any problems with online submission, contact IT Services.
It is important that you familiarize yourselves with the procedures of submission of coursework, and the penalties which are imposed for late submission. The School follows UCD policies in this regard.
Library Support for Student Learning
There is a great deal of very helpful information on the UCD Library site that you should familiarise yourself, including guides to citation, information skills and the specialist electronic databases which are very useful for study and research. The UCD library has put together a range of videos that offer brief tutorials on accessing both electronic and hard copy versions of academic books and journals which you can access here.
Plagiarism is the unacknowledged copying of material or ideas from someone or somewhere else. On your tutorial registration card you will be required to sign your name under the following declaration: 'I undertake that the writing-up of all assignments will be my own unaided work and that where I quote or refer to the opinions of writings of others, these will be fully and clearly acknowledged'; a similar declaration must be made on each history essay cover sheet that you attach to your assignments. Essays that show evidence of plagiarism will not be accepted and will be returned unmarked.
Referencing acknowledges the books, articles, websites, and any other material used in the writing of a paper, essay or thesis.
1. Essential Elements of Referencing
- Citing: referring to sources you quote within your document. This brief citation refers the reader to the exact place in your reference list or bibliography where you will provide the extended details of the source.
- Reference list: the detailed list of sources that have been cited within the text. Every reference must have enough information for the reader to find the source again.
- Bibliography: a list of all references consulted in preparing the document, whether cited or not.
This is an example of in-text citing (citations are in bold for demonstration only):
The early 21st century has seen the development of a global epidemic of obesity, as emphasised by a growing body of articles, popular books, and most recently the movie Supersize Me (Spurlock 2004). To prevent obesity, habits need to be changed and dietary education as part of the school curriculum is key (MacDonald 1997, p.78). It is clear that to decrease obesity levels in populations, significant sociological changes will need to take place.
This is how the entries would look in your reference list:
Macdonald, G. (1997) ‘Innovation diffusion and health education in schools’, in Sidell, M., Jones, L., Katz, J. and Peberdy, A., eds., Debates and dilemmas in promoting health, London: Open University, 55-83.
Spurlock, M. (2004) Supersize me: a film of epic proportions [film], Beverly Hills: Roadside Attractions.
Passing off another scholar’s work as your own is plagiarism and is considered a major disciplinary offence. Read more about plagiarism in Chapter 6 and Appendix 3 of the UL Student Handbook.
Turnitin.com is used at the University of Limerick to check for instances of plagiarism in students’ work. Check with your department with any questions about the use of Turnitin.
3. Harvard (Name-Date) referencing style
Many departments in the University of Limerick recommend a style based on the Harvard (Name-Date) referencing style. There are variations and interpretations within the Harvard referencing style. This guide gives you a version of Harvard based on ISO 690:2010 and BS 5605:1990 approved by UL, hereafter called Harvard UL. However, you should check which style or variation your department or thesis supervisor recommends. Whatever referencing style you are required to follow you must ensure:
- Consistent application of the rules of whatever variation you are following;
- Acknowledgement of all sources;
- Sufficient bibliographic detail to enable your reader to locate the item to which you are referring.
4. Referencing styles by discipline or subject
In addition to the Harvard UL style, there are several other styles used in the University of Limerick as other styles are more appropriate to specific disciplines or subjects such as:
- History – The Irish Historical Society (IHS). See the Rules for Contributors on http://irishhistoricalstudies.ie/.
- Law – OSCOLA Ireland based on the OSCOLA (Oxford Standard for Citation of Legal Authorities) standard. See http://www.legalcitation.ie/ for more information.
- Culture and communication – MLA Style (Modern Language Association)
- Psychology – APA Style (American Psychological Association)
There are thousands of other referencing styles including:
- ASME Citation Style (American Society of Mechanical Engineers)
- Chicago Manual of Style / Turabian Citation Style
- IEEE Citation Style (Institute of Electrical & Electronic Engineers)
- Vancouver Citation Style
If submitting a paper to a publisher, you should check with them to see if there is a particular style that they would like you to use.
The Glucksman Library’s Referencing & EndNote LibGuide provides more information on the different referencing styles and EndNote bibliographic management software at https://libguides.ul.ie/referencing-endnote.
You can direct referencing queries or comments to the Information Desk, your Faculty Librarian or via Ask Us – Tell Us on the library website: www.ul.ie/library.
For further information on how to cite and sample references see Cite It Right.